Barletta-Andria-Trani was only created as a province in 2009 from a number of communes that were previously part of either the Foggia or Bari provinces. The capital is Andria, but all three cities forming the name of the province share it's administration.

In recent years this part of the region has been 're-branded' as Puglia Imperiale, intending to bring benefit to all the towns and cities in the province from the popularity of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, Castel Del Monte. This impressive octagonal shaped castle was constructed by Frederick II, the powerful Holy Roman Emperor and head of the House of Hohenstaufen during the 13th Century, who had a widespread and lasting influence across Puglia.

The Province of Barletta-Andria-Trani has a population of c.400k people, and covers a land area of 1 543 km2.